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Laser-generated medium-laser crystal

2019-10-08 14:51:47
Laser crystal is one of the important photoelectric information functional materials, and is the important material basis of photoelectron technology, especially laser technology. Its development degree is closely related to the development of laser technology. The development and application of laser crystal technology is one of the important symbols to measure a country's high-tech development level. With the development and application of Optoelectronics technology, higher and newer requirements are put forward for laser crystal materials. Crystal materials can be used for laser frequency conversion, laser wavelength expansion, laser intensity and phase modulation, holographic storage of laser signal, elimination of self-pumping phase conjugation of wavefront domain change, etc. Therefore, non-linear optical crystals are indispensable key materials in high-tech and modern military technology. Developed countries place them in the priority of development, and as an important strategic measure, they are included in their respective high-tech development plans and given high attention and support.
 
The main application field of laser crystals is solid-state lasers. As the working substance of stimulated radiation transition, the doped ion level structure in laser crystals determines the wavelength of laser. The lattice structure of matrix and its macroscopic physical and chemical properties determine the output performance of laser. It can be said that laser crystals affect the development of solid-state lasers to a great extent.
 
 
 
YAG, abbreviated as Y3Al5O12, is a complex oxide formed by the reaction of Y2O3 and Al2O3. It belongs to cubic crystal system and has garnet structure. The cell of garnet can be regarded as a link network of dodecahedron, octahedron and tetrahedron.
 
 
 
Nd:YAG Crystal (Laser Crystal)
 
 
 
Chemical Molecular Formula: Y3-3XNd3xAl5O12 (doping concentration of X as Nd)
 
 
 
Chinese chemical name: neodymium yttrium aluminum garnet
 
 
 
Main performance indicators:
 
 
 
Crystalline orientation < 111> (+5), <100> (+5)?
 
 
 
Cubic Crystal System with Crystal Structure
 
 
 
Laser emission wavelength 1064 nm
 
 
 
The concentration of Nd ion ranges from 0.1% to 2.0 at%
 
 
 
Refractive index 1.8169 (lambda = 1064 nm)
 
 
 
Melting point 1970 C
 
 
 
Density 4.55 g/cm 3
 
 
 
Mohs hardness 8-8.5
 
 
 
Thermal conductivity (20 C) 0.129 Wcm-1K-1
 
 
 
Thermal expansion coefficient: 8.2X10-6K-1<100>
 
 
 
For flash-pumped lasers, the emission spectrum of the pump lamp is actually a broadband continuous-wave pump. Only a few spectral peaks match the absorption peaks of Nd ions, so the general lamp pumping only uses a small part of the spectral energy, and the efficiency is low. Ce: Nd: YAG crystal is formed by adding Ce ions to form Ce: Nd: YAG. Ce ions can absorb the photon energy in the ultraviolet spectrum region very well, and transfer the energy to Nd ions in a non-radiative transition way, thus increasing the spectral utilization rate. Therefore, the laser rod has high efficiency, low threshold and good repetition frequency characteristics. In addition, it will make effective use of harmful ultraviolet radiation (long time ultraviolet radiation, which will form color centers in Nd:YAG crystals and reduce the laser properties of crystals) in Nd:YAG. Therefore, UV radiation and even special quartz filters can not be used. Ce: Nd: YAG crystal is yellow after doping Ce, so it is also called yellow rod.

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